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a landscape converted to alternative uses (Brinson, 1988, 1993b). Because many wetlands are adjacent to surface waters, they often represent the best opportunity for natural improvement of water quality because of their filtering and transformation capacity. Uplands also can provide retention and transformation, but they are often preferentially allocated to other land uses—such as agriculture and urban development—that generate nutrients and sediments, and are more remote from surface waters.
When wetlands are seasonally dry, they can be temporarily cease some functions, such as support of aquatic habitat, but retain others, such as the capacity to store surface water. Because the return of functions associated with saturation can be contingent on maintenance of the physical and hydrologic conditions under which the wetland developed, alteration of wetlands during dry phases is likely to be detrimental to their functional integrity.
Individual wetlands function in part through interaction with the adjacent portions of the landscape and with other wetlands. For example, flyway support for waterfowl is a collective function of many wetlands. Likewise, no single wetland or aquatic site could support anadromous fish. The connections between individual wetlands, aquatic systems, and terrestrial systems are critical to the support of many organisms. Furthermore, flood control and pollution control are determined by the number, position, and extent of wetlands within watersheds. Thus, the landscape gives proper context for the evaluation of some wetland functions.
Maintenance of biodiversity, water quality, and natural hydrologic flow regimes in part depends on the total wetland area and on the types of wetlands within regions (Preston and Bedford, 1988). As wetland acreage declines within a watershed, some functional capacities, such as maintenance of water quality or waterfowl populations, also decline. In this way, cumulative loss of wetland gradually impairs some landscape-level functions (Gosselink and Lee, 1989; Gosselink et al., 1990; Preston and Bedford, 1988). This occurs not only through loss of surface area, but also through reduction in average size, total number, linkage, and density of wetlands (Johnston, 1994b). Many wetland functions and their associated value to society depend on the connections among wetlands and between wetlands and adjacent aquatic and terrestrial systems. For example, river floodplain wetlands form natural corridors for the migration of fish, birds, mammals, and reptiles (Brinson et al., 1981). Uses of uplands can affect the physical, chemical, and biotic characteristics of wetlands. Paving or agricultural uses, for example, affect the amount and quality of water that reaches adjacent wetlands. Where the use of uplands is intensive, as in urban areas, wetlands often show signs of stress (Ehrenfeld and Schneider, 1993).
Scarcity may magnify the value of wetlands. For example, in an urban