Research and Citation Resources
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These OWL resources will help you conduct research using primary source methods, such as interviews and observations, and secondary source methods, such as books, journals, and the Internet. This area also includes materials on evaluating research sources.
These OWL resources will help you use the research you have conducted in your documents. This area includes material on quoting and paraphrasing your research sources, as well as material on how to avoid plagiarism.
These OWL resources will help you learn how to use the American Psychological Association (APA) citation and format style. This section contains resources on in-text citation and the References page, as well as APA sample papers, slide presentations, and the APA classroom poster.
These OWL resources will help you learn how to use the Modern Language Association (MLA) citation and format style. This section contains resources on in-text citation and the Works Cited page, as well as MLA sample papers, slide presentations, and the MLA classroom poster
Chicago Manual of Style
This section contains information on the Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the 16th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in September 2010.
American Medical Association (AMA) Style
These resources provide guidance on how to cite sources using American Medical Association (AMA) Style, 10th Ed., including examples for print and electronic sources.
MLA Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.
Contributors: Tony Russell, Allen Brizee, Elizabeth Angeli, Russell Keck, Joshua M. Paiz, Michelle Campbell, Rodrigo Rodríguez-Fuentes, Daniel P. Kenzie, Susan Wegener, Maryam Ghafoor, Purdue OWL Staff
Last Edited: 2017-11-15 10:10:43
The following FAQs address issues in MLA citation and/or formatting. Further information on MLA style and citation can be found at the Purdue OWL’s MLA Style and Formatting resource.
I have to write a paper in MLA format. Where can I learn more about writing in MLA?
The Purdue OWL maintains an extensive resource that deals with MLA style. See our MLA Formatting and Style Guide. Additionally, the MLA Style Center is an official resource that provides answers to frequently asked questions, guidance on formatting research papers, documentation tips, and other assistance in writing paper in MLA format.
How do I use MLA citations and list of works cited in a PowerPoint presentation?
To cite sources in a slide presentation, MLA suggests including brief citations on each slide that includes material from your sources, including quotations, summaries and paraphrases, images, or data. Include a works-cited list on a slide at the end of your presentation. MLA also suggests providing your list of sources to your audience, either through a URL or printed copy that you hand out in your presentation. For more details, see the MLA Handbook, 8th ed., pp. 127-28.
How do I cite email?
When you document an email in your list of works cited, use the subject of the message as the title. The title should be capitalized and in quotation marks.
Boyle, Anthony T. “Re: Utopia.” Received by Daniel J. Cahill, 21 June 1997.
What is a container?
Unlike earlier versions, the eighth edition handbook refers to containers, which are the larger wholes in which the source is located. For example, if you want to cite a poem that is listed in a collection of poems, the individual poem is the source, while the larger collection is the container. The title of the container is usually italicized and followed by a comma, since the information that follows next describes the container. A container could be a television series, which is made up of episodes, a website, which contains articles and postings, or many other sources within sources.
Bazin, Patrick. “Toward Metareading.” The Future of the Book, edited by Geoffrey Nunberg, U of California P, 1996, pp. 153-68.
“Hush.” Buffy the Vampire Slayer, created by Joss Whedon, performance by Sarah Michelle Gellar, season 4, episode 10, Mutant Enemy, 1999.
What is a DOI?
A DOI, or digital object identifier, is a series of digits and letters that leads to the location of an online source. Articles in journals are often assigned DOIs to ensure that the source is locatable, even if the URL changes. If your source has a DOI, use that instead of a URL.
Chan, Evans. “Postmodernism and Hong Kong Cinema.” Postmodern Culture, vol. 10, no. 3, May 2000. Project Muse, doi: 10.1353/pmc.2000.0021.
Do I need to include a URL when I document online sources in my list of works cited?
MLA’s eighth edition handbook recommends including URLs when documenting an online source. This is so your readers have the most specific information when attempting to locate your source. If your teacher prefers that you do not include URLs in your works-cited list, be sure to follow her/his instructions.
Gay, Roxane. “Who Gets to be Angry?” The New York Times, 10 June 2016, www.nytimes.com/2016/06/12/opinion/sunday/who-gets-to-be-angry.html?_r=0
When the title of a newspaper begins with an article (the, a, an) do I need to include it when I list the title in my citation?
Yes. This is one of the changes in the eighth edition handbook. Previously, MLA did not require the article in the title of a periodical (newspaper, journal, magazine), but the updated handbook states that the article should now be considered part of the title. The article should be capitalized and italicized. For example, refer to The New York Times, (rather than New York Times), when citing it in your text or works-cited list.
How do I cite e-books or Kindle books?
An e-book is considered a version, so it should be listed after the title of the book, before the publication information. If you know the type of e-book you used (such as Kindle or Ebook library), be sure to specify that. Avoid using device-specific numbering systems, since they will vary among different devices. If the book has chapters, sections, or other stable numbering systems, it is permissible to identify parts of the text that way.
Theile, Verena and Linda Tredennick, editors. New Formalism and Literary Theory. Kindle ed., Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.
How do I cite a tweet?
The full text of the tweet should be your title. Enclose the text in quotation marks, and include the date, time, and URL.
@persiankiwi. “We have report of large street battles in east & west of Tehran now - #Iranelection.” Twitter, 23 June 2009, 11:15 a.m., twitter.com/persiankiwi/status/2298106072.
If you know the real name of an author listed under a pseudonym, add it in parenthesis (this information is not required, but include it if it will be helpful to your readers).
@lclambeck (Linda Lambeck). “The #bridgeport school funding upshot: the state legislature lacks political will to do right thing.” Twitter, 7 June 2016, 5:59 p.m., twitter.com/lclambeck/status/ 752985641261162496.
How do I cite a book that I accessed online?
Cite the book just like you would if it were in print. Then add the name of the database or website you used to access the online book, and add a URL or other location indicator at the end of the citation.
Pettegree, Andrew. The Invention of News: How the World Came to Know about Itself. Yale UP, 2014. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost), 0-search.ebscohost.com.iii-server.ualr.edu/ login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=692353&site=ehost-live&scope=site.
How do I cite an unpublished manuscript/document?
Author. Title of Manuscript/Document. date of composition (at least year), along with "the name and location of the library, research institution, or personal collection housing the material."
Henderson, George Wylie. Baby Lou and the Angel Bud. Collection of Roslyn Kirkland Allen, New York.
How do I cite the US Constitution?
In general, do not italicize or enclose in quotation marks the title of laws, acts, and similar documents in either the text or the list of works cited (Declaration of Independence, Constitution of the United States, Taft-Hartley Act). Such titles are usually abbreviated, and the works are cited by sections. The years are added if relevant.
Because these directives aren’t very specific, you can use the following example as a guide for the Works Cited entry:
U.S. Constitution. Art./Amend. XII, Sec. 3.
You need only provide either the article number or the amendment number as appropriate.
The complementary parenthetical citation is written as (US Const. amend. XII, sec. 3). You might also reference the U.S. Constitution in the sentence itself and only provide the amendment and section number in the parentheses at the end of the sentence.
How do I cite a definition from an online dictionary, like Dictionary.com?
In most cases, a word defined in an online dictionary is within two containers: the original source and the web source. Be sure to italicize both containers, and include the URL. The access date is optional, but include it if it will best help your readers locate the source.
“Perchloric acid.” The American Heritage Stedman’s Medical Dictionary, Houghton Mifflin, 1995. Dictionary.com, www.dictionary.com/ browse/perchloric-acid?s=t. Accessed 13 Dec. 2010.
How do I cite a footnote?
The eighth edition handbook does not address this question, so we advise following the format traditionally recommended by the MLA style guidelines. This states that citing another author’s footnote in your own text should include the following, in parentheses: author’s name, the page number, the letter n (to indicate note), and the note number. There are no spaces between the page number, the letter n, and the note number.
How do I cite genealogies and birth/death certificates?
This is a very particular and a very peculiar case. MLA does not offer any guidelines on how to handle genealogies and birth certificates. However, after searching through web, we have found the following resources that might be useful to you:
Genealogy.com offers a method of citing birth/death certificates. Follow the link and scroll down to “Official Records.”
In addition, Archive.gov offers a leaflet called Citing Records in the National Archives of the United States.
How do I cite the information from food nutrition labels?
Treat food nutrition labels as you would any other source. Make sure to include the core elements, in the proper order, and provide as much information as your readers will need to locate the source.
“Nutrition Label of Kraft Macaroni and Cheese.” Kraftfoods, Pay Less Supermarket, 2016.
How do I cite an informational plaque or an information card?
Treat informational plaques/cards as you would any other source. Make sure to include the core elements, in the proper order, and provide as much information as your readers will need to locate the source. Use the title of the plaque as the title of your source. If you have experienced an object firsthand, such as in a museum, give the name of the place, the city in which it is located, and the dates of the exhibition.
“Alexander McQueen’s Gothic.” Gothic to Goth: Romantic Era Fashion and its Legacy, Wadsworth Athenaeum, Hartford, Connecticut, March 5-July 10, 2016.
When I am repeatedly quoting or paraphrasing the same source in my paper, do I have to keep citing that source at the end of each sentence?
When you reference the same source more than once in the same paragraph, and no other source intervenes, you may give the in-text citation just once at the end of the paragraph. If, however, this technique creates any ambiguity about your reference, it is better to cite the source every time you reference it.
Romeo and Juliet presents an opposition between two worlds: “the world of the everyday,” associated with the adults in the play, and “the world of romance,” associated with the two lovers. Romeo and Juliet’s language of love nevertheless becomes “fully responsive to the tang of actuality” (Zender 138, 141).
This makes clear that the first quotation is from the first page number in the parentheses, and the second quotation is from the second number.
There are other ways to do this as well. You may cite the author’s name with the page number after the first direct quotation, and just list the page number after the second quotation.
Romeo and Juliet presents an opposition between two worlds: “the world of the everyday,” associated with the adults in the play, and “the world of romance,” associated with the two lovers (Zender 138). Romeo and Juliet’s language of love nevertheless becomes “fully responsive to the tang of actuality” (141).
If I quote from two different sources in the same sentence, how do I cite both?
While the MLA does not prohibit references to more than one source in the same sentence, it is generally best to begin a new sentence when referring to a new source. Your goal is to present your information as clearly as possible so that your readers can best follow your points. With that in mind, if you find yourself attempting to cite two sources in the same sentence, chances are, your ideas will be clearer if you break them into two sentences.
There is no official consensus on how to define the new formalism. Some scholars assert that the method is difficult to pin down (Wolfson 9). On the other hand, some say that a neoformalist approach may be used to examine a text’s transhistorical effect (Marcovits 591).
If I “just know” a fact or idea (something I learned in high school, for example), do I have to cite my high school course or textbook?
This question falls under the issue of common knowledge. Common knowledge generally includes biographical information, dates of historical events, and other undisputed, widely available information. If you think that your average, reasonable reader already accepts this information as fact, it is not necessary to document it.