Redesigned Sat Essay Score Percentile

The SAT underwent significant changes in 2016, so it's important to know how to set score goals based on the newest version of the test. The test is now out of 1600 points instead of 2400 (i.e., the maximum score on the old, pre-2016 SAT).

In this article, I’ll explain what a good score on the new SAT is and show you how to calculate an appropriate goal score for yourself based on where you're applying for college.

 

2017 National SAT Score Percentiles

In our article on how to find your target SAT score, we go over the most recent national statistics for SAT scores. The condensed table below shows the 2017 SAT percentile ranges to give you an idea of what kinds of benchmarks you can aim for on the SAT. All scores are composite scores (i.e., your Math and Evidence-Based Reading and Writing scores combined).

As a reminder, percentiles indicate what percentage of test takers you scored higher than on the SAT. Thus, the higher your percentile, the more test takers you've outperformed.

SAT Composite Score RangePercentile Score
1320-160090 to 99+
1230-132080 to 90
1160-123069 to 80
1100-116059 to 69
1050-110049 to 59
1000-105040 to 49
940-100029 to 40
880-94019 to 29
800-8809 to 19
400-8001- to 9

Source: College Board SAT Understanding Scores 2017

For all students who take the SAT, the average SAT score is 1060. The 25th percentile score (higher than only 25% of scorers) is 910-920, and the 75th percentile score (higher than 75% of test takers) is between 1190 and 1200.

On the new SAT, then, we can say the following:

  • >1200 = a very good score nationally
  • 1060 = an average score nationally
  • <910 = a very low score nationally

If you’re curious about how the scores on the current and old SAT relate to one another, check out our article on how to convert your new SAT scores to old scores (and vice versa).

 

What's a Good SAT Score Based on Your College Goals?

It’s important to consider your personal circumstances and goals when deciding what a good SAT score means for you. 

If you're aiming for highly selective colleges, national averages aren't going to mean much to you since these schools typically only look at the top 1% of students. On the flip side, if you’re considering less selective schools, you might not need a super high SAT score to get accepted.

Nowadays, most colleges provide average SAT scores based on the new SAT scoring system (out of 1600); however, it's highly possible you'll come across a few schools that still have the old scoring system on their website.

We recommend searching for "[College Name] admissions requirements PrepScholar." Click on the first link to get to our college admissions page for that school. On this page, you'll see tons of information about your school's SAT scores and admissions statistics.

If you’re just looking up information for one school, use our old-to-new SAT score convertersto find out what the new SAT score ranges are for a particular school. If a school you’re looking at only has information on Critical Reading and Math scores for the old 2400 SAT, you can use the Critical Reading score as an approximation of what you’ll want your new Evidence-Based Reading and Writing (EBRW) score to be.

In general, you’ll want to aim for the 75th percentile score for your school (that is, higher than 75% of accepted students) to give yourself the best chance of getting accepted.

Let’s use Texas A&M as an example. Currently, its 75th percentile SAT score is 1360, its 25th percentile score is 1130, and its average score is 1250. Within this 75th percentile composite score, students earned around 690 on Math and around 680 on EBRW (based on the College Board conversion charts).

Thus, if you’re hoping to attend Texas A&M, the 75th percentile composite score of 1360 should be your goal score on the new SAT.

 

The football stadium at Texas A&M. If you like football, this is probably a good place for you.

 

New SAT to Old SAT Score Conversion: Potential for Variation

Since the scoring on the new SAT is divided into two sections out of 800 points each rather than three sections out of 800 points each (as it was on the old 2400 SAT), it's safe to say that there might be some imbalance in score conversions.

Reading and Writing now make up a single section—Evidence-Based Reading and Writing, or EBRW—and count for 800 points total, whereas Math has the same 800-point weight as it did on the old SAT. If you’re especially good at math, you might have an advantage on the new SAT, since the Math section now makes up half of your score rather than one-third of it.

On the other hand, suppose you’re not so good at math but are reasonably strong at reading and writing. I won't encourage you to lower your standards for a good SAT score, so consider doing more extensive math prep. This will probably lead to a score disparity of only around 50 points or so, but you should be prepared to contend with slightly lower scores initially if your math skills are weaker.

 

If this seems like something you would make, then you're probably going to be fine on the Math section. 

 

Conclusion: A Good Score on the New SAT

On the new SAT, scores are out of 1600 instead of 2400 (as they were on the pre-2016 SAT).

Based on the most recent data released by the College Board in 2017, the average SAT score is 1060, the 75th percentile score is 1190-1200, and the 25th percentile score is 910-920.

By looking up colleges you want to attend and finding their 75th percentile scores for admitted students, you can calculate a more appropriate SAT score goal for yourself.

If the scores listed by your school are for the old SAT, simply use our conversion charts to get a solid approximation of the new composite score you'll need to beat. For schools that only provide average Critical Reading and Math scores for the old SAT, you can use the Critical Reading score to estimate what your new EBRW score should be.

 

What's Next?

Still wondering if you should take the SAT or the ACT? Our article explains how to decide between the two tests and figure out which one is ultimately right for you. 

Need help studying for the SAT? Then check out our collection of top study tips to get some pointers. In addition, see what our top 21 SAT tips and tricks are.

For a comprehensive overview of all of the changes that came to the SAT in 2016,read our complete guide to the new SAT.

 

Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points? We've written a guide about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:

SAT Essay scores for the new SAT are confusing to interpret, in part, because the College Board has intentionally given them little context. By combining College Board and student data, Compass has produced a way for students to judge essay performance, and we answer many of the common questions about the essay.

Why are there no percentiles for the essay on an SAT score report?

No percentiles or norms are provided in student reports. Even colleges do not receive any summary statistics. Given Compass’ concerns about the inaccuracy of essay scoring and the notable failures of the ACT on that front, the de-emphasis of norms would seem to be a good thing. The problem is that 10% of colleges are sticking with the SAT Essay as an admission requirement. While those colleges will not receive score distribution reports from the College Board, it is not difficult for them to construct their own statistics — officially or unofficially — based on thousands of applicants. Colleges can determine a “good score,” but students cannot. This asymmetry of information is harmful to students, as they are left to speculate how well they have performed and how their scores will be interpreted. Through our analysis, Compass hopes to provide students and parents more context for evaluating SAT Essay scores.

How has scoring changed? Is it still part of a student’s Total Score?

On the old SAT, the essay was a required component of the Writing section and made up approximately one-third of a student’s 200-800 score. The essay score itself was simply the sum (2-12) of two readers’ 1-6 scores. Readers were expected to grade holistically and not to focus on individual components of the writing. The SAT essay came under a great deal of criticism for being too loosely structured. Factual accuracy was not required; it was not that difficult to make pre-fabricated material fit the prompt; many colleges found the 2-12 essay scores of little use; and the conflation of the essay and “Writing” was, in some cases, blocking the use of the SAT Writing score — which included grammar and usage — entirely.

With the 2016 overhaul of the SAT came an attempt to make the essay more academically defensible while also making it optional (as the ACT essay had long been). The essay score is not a part of the 400-1600 score. Instead, a student opting to take the SAT Essay receives 2-8 scores in three dimensions: reading, analysis, and writing. No equating or fancy lookup table is involved. The scores are simply the sum of two readers’ 1-4 ratings in each dimension. There is no official totaling or averaging of scores, although colleges may choose to do so.


Readers avoid extremes

What is almost universally true about grading of standardized test essays is that readers gravitate to the middle of the scale. The default instinct is to nudge a score above or below a perceived cutoff or midpoint rather than to evenly distribute scores. When the only options are 1, 2, 3, or 4, the consequence is predictable — readers give out a lot of 2s and 3s and very few 1s and 4s. In fact, our analysis shows that a80% of all reader scores are 2s or 3s. This, in turn, means that most of the dimension scores (the sum of the two readers) range from 4 to 6. Analysis scores are outliers. A third of readers give essays a 1 in Analysis. Below is the distribution of reader scores across all dimensions.

What is a good SAT Essay score?

By combining multiple data sources — including extensive College Board scoring information — Compass has estimated the mean and mode (most common) essay scores for students at various score levels. We also found that the reading and writing dimensions were similar, while analysis scores lagged by a point across all sub-groups. These figures should not be viewed as cutoffs for “good” scores. The loose correlation of essay score to Total Score and the high standard deviation of essay scores means that students at all levels see wide variation of scores. The average essay-taking student scores a 1,080 on the SAT and receives just under a 5/4/5.


We would advise students to use these results only as broad benchmarks. It would not be at all unusual to score a point below these means. Scores that are consistently 2 or more points below the means may be more of a concern.

College Board recently released essay results for the class of 2017, so score distributions are now available. From these, percentiles can also be calculated. We provide these figures with mixed feelings. On the one hand, percentile scores on such an imperfect measure can be highly misleading. On the other hand, we feel that students should understand the full workings of essay scores.

The role of luck

What is frustrating to many students on the SAT and ACT is that they can score 98th percentile in most areas and then get a “middling” score on the essay. This result is actually quite predictable. Whereas math and verbal scores are the result of dozens of objective questions, the essay is a single question graded subjectively. To replace statistical concepts with a colloquial one — far more “luck” is involved than on the multiple-choice sections. What text is used in the essay stimulus? How well will the student respond to the style and subject matter? Which of the hundreds of readers were assigned to grade the student’s essay? What other essays has the reader recently scored?

Even good writers run into the unpredictability involved and the fact that essay readers give so few high scores. A 5 means that the Readers A and B gave the essay a 2 and a 3, respectively. Which reader was “right?” If the essay had encountered two readers like Reader A, it would have received a 4. If the essay had been given two readers like Reader B, it would have received a 6. That swing makes a large difference if we judge scores exclusively by percentiles, but essay scores are simply too blurry to make such cut-and-dry distinctions. More than 80% of students receive one of three scores — 4, 5, or 6 on the reading and writing dimensions and 3, 4, or 5 on analysis.

What do colleges expect?

It’s unlikely that many colleges will release a breakdown of essay scores for admitted students — especially since so few are requiring it. What we know from experience with the ACT, though, is that even at the most competitive schools in the country, the 25th-75th percentile scores of admitted students were 8-10 on the ACT’s old 2-12 score range. We expect that things will play out similarly for the SAT and that most students admitted to highly selective colleges will have domain scores in the 5-7 range (possibly closer to 4-6 for analysis). It’s even less likely for students to average a high score across all three areas than it is to obtain single high mark. We estimate that only a fraction of a percent of students will average an 8 — for example [8/8/8, 7/8/8, 8/7/8, or 8,8,7].

Update as of October 2017. The University of California system has published the 25th-75th percentile ranges for enrolled students. It has chosen to work with total scores. The highest ranges — including those at UCLA and Berkeley — are 17-20. Those scores are inline with our estimates above.

How will colleges use the domain scores?

Colleges have been given no guidance by College Board on how to use essay scores for admission. Will they sum the scores? Will they average them? Will they value certain areas over others? Chances are that if you are worrying too much about those questions, then you are likely losing sight of the bigger picture. We know of no cases where admission committees will make formulaic use of essay scores. The scores are a very small, very error-prone part of a student’s testing portfolio.

How low is too low?

Are 3s and 4s, then, low enough that an otherwise high-scoring student should retest? There is no one-size-fits-all answer to that question. In general, it is a mistake to retest solely to improve an essay score unless a student is confident that the SAT Total Score can be maintained or improved. A student with a 1340 PSAT and 1280 SAT may feel that it is worthwhile to bring up low essay scores because she has previously shown that she can do better on the Evidence-based Reading and Writing and Math, as well. A student with a 1400 PSAT and 1540 SAT should think long and hard before committing to a retest. Admission results from the class of 2017 may give us some added insight into the use of SAT Essay scores.

Will colleges continue to require the SAT Essay?

For the class of 2017, Compass has prepared a list of the SAT Essay and ACT Writing policies for 360 of the top colleges. Several of the largest and most prestigious public university systems — California, Michigan, and Texas, for example, still require the essay, and a number of highly competitive private colleges do the same — for example, Dartmouth, Harvard, Princeton, and Stanford.

The number of excellent colleges not requiring the SAT Essay, though, is long and getting longer. Compass expects even more colleges to drop the essay requirement for the classes of 2018 and 2019. Policies are typically finalized in late spring or during the summer.

Should I skip the essay entirely?

A common question regarding SAT scores is whether the whole mess can be avoided by skipping the essay. After all, if only about 10% of colleges are requiring the section, is it really that important? Despite serious misgivings about the test and the ways scores are interpreted, Compass still recommends that most students take the essay unless they are certain that they will not be applying to any of the colleges requiring or recommending it. Nationally, about 70% of students choose to take the essay on at least one SAT administration. When looking at higher scoring segments, that quickly rises to 85-90%. Almost all Compass students take the SAT Essay at least once to insure that they do not miss out on educational opportunities.

Should I prepare for the SAT Essay?

Most Compass students decide to do some preparation for the essay, because taking any part of a test “cold” can be an unpleasant experience, and students want to avoid feeling like a retake is necessary. In addition to practicing exercises and tests, most students can perform well enough on the SAT Essay after 1-2 hours of tutoring. Students taking a Compass practice SAT will also receive a scored essay. Students interested in essay writing tips for the SAT can refer to Compass blog posts on the difference between the ACT and SAT tasks and the use of first person on the essays.

Will I be able to see my essay?

Yes. ACT makes it difficult to obtain a copy of your Writing essay, but College Board includes it as part of your online report.

Will colleges have access to my essay? Even if they don’t require it?

Yes, colleges are provided with student essays. We know of very few circumstances where SAT Essay reading is regularly conducted. Colleges that do not require the SAT Essay fall into the “consider” and “do not consider” camps. Schools do not always list this policy on their website or in their application materials, so it is hard to have a comprehensive list. We recommend contacting colleges for more information. In general, the essay will have little to no impact at colleges that do not require or recommend it.

Is the SAT Essay a reason to take the ACT instead?

Almost all colleges that require the SAT Essay require Writing for ACT-takers. The essays are very different on the two tests, but neither can be said to be universally “easier” or “harder.” Compass recommends that the primary sections of the tests determine your planning. Compass’ content experts have also written a piece on how to attack the ACT essay.

Key links in this post:

ACT and SAT essay requirements
ACT Writing scores explained
Comparing ACT and SAT essay tasks
The use of first person in ACT and SAT essays
Understanding the “audience and purpose” of the ACT essay
Compass proctored practice testing for the ACT, SAT, and Subject Tests

 

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