Writing a Conclusion
It’s important to write a good introduction. It’s important to keep things organized in the main body of your writing. And it’s important to write a good conclusion. In a nonfiction piece, the purpose of a conclusion is to tie things up, summarize what has been said, and reinforce the main idea. In a creative writing piece, it also helps tie things up and might also leave the reader thinking or wondering.
A good way to get started writing conclusions is to give yourself a starting point. You can begin with any of the following: to sum up, in conclusion, in summary. Make sure these sound appropriate and fit well with what you’ve written. As you grow as a writer, you might want to leave these behind and try other strategies.
Use what you’ve written to help you write your conclusion. You can often rephrase what you included in your introductory paragraph. If you began with, "The colors of autumn make it my favorite season," then you can include a similar sentence in your conclusion. For example, "It is the orange, red, and brown of the leaves that make me love the fall."
You can also end with a question. This may or may not be effective, depending on the content and style of your writing. For a story about a boy who gets a new puppy, you might end with, "Can you imagine all the wonderful things to come?" For a piece on the importance of brushing your teeth, you might make the reader think with something like, "You don’t want all of that on your teeth all night long, do you?"
However you choose to write your conclusion, be sure that it fits well with your piece. It should flow naturally and remind the reader of the wonderful things you’ve written.
Time4Writing provides practice in this area. View our coursework available in Middle School Advanced Essay or browse other related courses.
What is a conclusion?
- A conclusion is what you will leave with your reader
- It "wraps up" your essay
- It demonstrates to the reader that you accomplished what you set out to do
- It shows how you have proved your thesis
- It provides the reader with a sense of closure on the topic
- A conclusion is the opposite of the introduction
- Remember that the introduction begins general and ends specific
- The conclusion begins specific and moves to the general
- So, if we use shapes to demonstrate the essay’s content, it would look like this:
Body of Essay
Rephrased thesis statement
What to include
- Your conclusion wraps up your essay in a tidy package and brings it home for your reader
- Your topic sentence should summarize what you said in your thesis statement
- This suggests to your reader that you have accomplished what you set out to accomplish
- Do not simply restate your thesis statement, as that would be redundant
- Rephrase the thesis statement with fresh and deeper understanding
- Your conclusion is no place to bring up new ideas
- Your supporting sentences should summarize what you have already said in the body of your essay
- If a brilliant idea tries to sneak into the final paragraph, you must pluck it out and let it have its own paragraph in the body, or leave it out completely
- Your topic for each body paragraph should be summarized in the conclusion
- Your closing sentence should help the reader feel a sense of closure
- Your closing sentence is your last word on the subject; it is your "clincher"
- Demonstrate the importance of your ideas
- Propel your reader to a new view of the subject
- End on a positive note
- Your closing sentence should make your readers glad they read your paper
Strategies for an effective conclusion
- Play the "So What" Game.
- When you read a statement from the conclusion, ask yourself, "So what?" or "Why should anybody care?"
- Ponder that question and answer it
- Basically, I’m just saying that education was important to Douglass
- So what?
- Well, it was important because it was a key to him feeling like a free and equal citizen
- Why should anybody care?
- That’s important because plantation owners tried to keep slaves from being educated so that they could maintain control. When Douglass obtained an education, he undermined that control personally.
- Return to the theme or themes in the introduction
- This brings the reader full circle
- If you begin by describing a scenario, you can end with the same scenario as proof that your essay is helpful in creating a new understanding
- Refer to the introductory paragraph by using key words, or parallel concepts and images that you also used in the introduction
- Include a brief summary of the paper’s main points, but don’t simply repeat things that were in the paper
- Pull it all together
- Show your reader how the points you made and the support and examples you used fit together
- Include a provocative insight or quotation from the research or reading you did for the paper
- Propose a course of action, a solution to an issue, or questions for further study
- Point to broader implications
- A paper about the style of writer, Virginia Woolf, could point to her influence on other writers or later feminists
Concluding strategies that do not work
- Beginning with an unnecessary, overused phrase
- These may work in speeches, but they come across as wooden and trite in writing
- "in conclusion"
- "in summary"
- "in closing"
- "as shown in the essay"
- Stating the thesis for the very first time
- Introducing a new idea or subtopic in your conclusion
- Making sentimental, emotional appeals that are out of character with the rest of the paper
- Including evidence (quotations, statistics, etc.) that should be in the body of the paper
- "That’s My Story and I’m Sticking to It"
- Restates the thesis and is usually painfully short
- Does not push ideas forward
- Written when the writer can’t think of anything else to say
- In conclusion, Frederick Douglass was, as we have seen, a pioneer in American education, proving that education was a major force for social change with regard to slavery.
- "Sherlock Holmes"
- State the thesis for the first time in the conclusion
- Writer thinks it would be more dramatic to keep the reader in suspense and then "wow" them with the main idea, as in a Sherlock Holmes mystery
- Readers want an analytical discussion of the topic in academic style, with the thesis statement up front
- "America the Beautiful"
- Draws on emotion to make its appeal
- Out of character with the rest of the paper
- "Grab Bag"
- Includes extra information thought of or found but couldn’t integrate into the main body
- Creates confusion for the reader
- Topic sentence
- Fresh rephrasing of thesis statement
- Supporting sentences
- Summarize or wrap up the main points in the body of the essay
- Explain how ideas fit together
- Closing sentence
- Final words
- Connects back to the introduction
- Provides a sense of closure
How to Write an Informative essay, useful tips
The aim of your informative essay is not in giving your opinion, but to inform and educate your audience on a topic given. Sometimes, informative speech essays are also called the expository essays and it is not for convincing someone to change his/her beliefs.
In addition, being informative it means to be interesting. Nevertheless, you can share your thoughts concerning the issue you care about, what has surprised you and made think about it, but not in persuasive tone.
Generally, your informative essay might:
- Inform readers about some problem they are not aware
- Explain its importance
- Present the latest research on a topic
- Compare viewpoints on a controversial subjects
- Analyze a cause-effect relationship
Sometimes it happens that creation of your own essay requires analysis and processing of someone’s other informative text and thoughts. To implement this properly, it is worth remembering three simple rules:
- To cut down the field of your own efforts and time spent, it’s not necessary to work with an entire text. Select a specific, most informative fragment and work with it.
- If author’s thoughts are needed to be express, do it, but without distortion and in a short form.
- And the final stage will be your informative presentation, compiled from such passages.
Informative speech essay and its structure
Unlike some other scientific work, informative essays has no clear structure, however, the basic principles of writing must be met. For this course, your essay should be 3–5 pages in length and use at least four sources. Preferably, a formal academic writing style should be used, instead of saying «I think» or relying on personal experience.
The basic structure of an informative essay is very simple. As a simple persuasive essay, it needs to have: the introduction, the body and the conclusion. The primary, while writing an essay, is your topic presence. This topic will be the title of your work. The cover page, if needed, should be filled according to your educational institution forms.
The beginning, or introduction, needs to present the topic and grab your audience attention. It needs to include the focus sentence for the entire essay. The first paragraph starts with a general idea (compared to the thesis) and gradually gets more and more specific. Give some background information about the key words and terminology. Foreshadow the key points and main information that your essay will give. After that, finish with your thesis. Usually, the informative essay thesis can be as comparison viewpoints on a controversial subject or different sources data on a certain issue analysis, etc. Don’t forget to research and gather all the pertinent details on that subject.
The body of your informative speech essay should provide all the necessary information and materials to your audience. It has to piece out fully the lack of information on this issue. Use various sources, facts and expert judgments. Make sure all your facts are accurate. Create an outline that will organize your facts in a logical way. If a simple persuasive essay contains one statement for one paragraph and relevant evidence, then, in our case, each paragraph must contain a certain informative facts line. For example: if your issue is «Understanding the Link between Cholesterol and Heart Disease», then your body must contain full and comprehensive particulars about the reported cases of heart disease, its numbers and severity of the problem.
Then, tell about the research and experiments that prove possible connection of Cholesterol and Heart Disease, as well as specify necessarily, all arguments against this theory. Present all the necessary statistics and facts.
As usual, move here from specific to general. You should to restate about the seriousness of issue and summarize the facts for and against the main thesis of your topic. As the example of informative essay closing, you can start with the following words: «So that now you know more about the elevated blood cholesterol or hypercholesterolemia and that it can be one of the most important risk factors for myocardial infarction. » However, you should NEVER introduce some new information or ideas in the conclusion. Its main purpose is to round off your informative essay by summing up.
And finally, remember that informative essay is not a persuasive essay; it should be objective and impartial. It is the best way to explain something that is complicated…in an uncomplicated way.
7 steps to succeed in the informative essay writing
- Choose the topic for your informative essay.
- Remember that the aim of informative essay is not impose your view, but to inform and educate the audience on a topic chosen.
- Create the outline that will organize your facts in a logical way.
- List all the questions you have about your topic and what you are going to perform.
- Gather all the necessary information for the work, from at least four sources.
- Research your topic online and in a library. Find authoritative, credible sources
- Analyze the facts and research details found.
- Present the topic and grab your audience attention.
- Give some background information about the key words and terminology.
- Compare the viewpoints and facts on a controversial subject or different sources data.
- Start with a general idea which gradually get more and more specific.
Imagine the inverted pyramid:
-Provide all the necessary information and materials to your target audience
-Use various sources, facts and expert judgments
-Make sure all your facts are accurate
- Restate about the seriousness of issue and summarize the facts for and against your main thesis
- Never introduce some new information or ideas in the conclusion
- The main purpose for your conclusion is to round off the essay by summing up
Analyze all the work done.
Think whether all the information has been provided and if there could arise any prejudices in the audience according to the material presented
Informative essay is not a persuasive essay;
It should be objective and impartial;
Your writing should be both informative and interesting without making an argument or imparting the author’s view point
It is the best way to explain something that is complicated…in an uncomplicated way.
Here are some possible titles for your informative essay to choose from:
How to Buy a Nice House
Understanding Your Credit Score
The Importance of Regular Daily Exercises
The Causes of Global Warming
Cost Savings of Hybrid Vehicles
Qualifications of Contractors
Understanding the Link between Cholesterol and Heart Disease
Defining Poverty in the City of Chicago
Reducing Carbon Emissions with Alternative Fuels
How to Get your Commercial Driver’s License
The Health Benefits and disadvantages of a Vegetarian Diet
Why Cleaning Your Ducts is Important
Understanding Geothermal Heating and Cooling